(PYQ) UGC NET JRF Paper 1 2021 Set 2 With Solutions


Ques 41: According to Robbins et al, the sequence of barriers to effective communication in an organization is
A. Language
B. Emotions
C. Selective perception
D. Information load
E. Filtering
Choose the correct answer from the options given below :

  • A,B,D,E,C
  • B,C,D,A,E
  • D,A,E,C,B
  • E,C,D,B,A

Communication
According to Robbins et. Al, the sequence of barriers to effective communication in an organization is :
Filtering > Selective perception > Information load > language > Emotions.
Filtering : Filtering prevents the members of an organization from getting a complete picture of a situation. The main objective here is to mange the reactions of a person. During upward communication, people filter out bad news more. To maximize your chances of sending and receiving effective communication, it’s helpful to deliver a message in a variety of ways and get information from multiple sources.
Selective perception : Selective perception refers to the filtering of what we see and hear according to our needs. this process in often unconscious. We are bombarded every day with a plethora of stimuli of information , whether we want them or not. That’s why we choose the information we need. ‘Selective perception’ is a time-saving measure. This is an essential tool in a complex culture, but it can also lead to mistakes.
Information load : Every type of message reaches us in different ways every day. Some messages are social, some in the form of advertising, some are commercial, such as e-mail memos and voice mail, Conversations with colleagues. There are other personal messages too, i.e., message and conversations from our loved ones and friends. Dealing with all this becomes a very difficult task at times. This state of imbalance is known as information overload.
Emotions : An effective communication requires a sender and a receiver. They should be free to talk and listen to each other. There could be potential differences of opinion or personality between them. Both of them may have to separate themselves from the flow of emotions if they want to achieve the goal of communicating clearly. A receiver who is emotionally upset ignores or distorts what the sender is saying. A sender who is emotionally upset may be unable to effectively present thoughts or feelings.
Words may have different meanings to different people, or they may not mean anything to another person. This is called semantics.
Language Complexity : Effective communication is clear, factual and goal-oriented. This is also respectable. Referring to a person by an adjective (a brain, a diabetic) reduces the person to that one trait. Language that provokes or stereotypes a person poisons the communication process. Language that insults an individual (or group) on the basis of age, ethnicity, sexual preference, and vulgarity should be avoided.
Organizational barriers : these barriers develop when an organization evolves. They can be attributed to the following conditions.
1. size of organization
2. Physical distance between employees
3. Specialization of jobs and activities
4. Organizational culture, which impacts freedom and trust
5. Organizational rules and regulations
6. Power structure in the organization
7. Complexity in organizational structure
8. Inadequate facilities and opportunities
9. Lack of cooperation between seniors and subordinates.

Ques 42: Match List I with List II :

Choose the correct answer from the options given below :

  • A-I,B-III,C-II,D-IV
  • A-II,B-IV,C-I,D-III
  • A-III,B-II,C-IV,D-I
  • A-IV,B-I,C-III,D-II

Research Aptitude
Refer explanation for question 31.
White hat : data gathering-facts, figures, information needs and gaps.
Red hat : intuition and imostion.
Biack hat; judjement and caution the logical negative .
Green hrt; provocatios ,alternative and creativity-proposels.

Ques 43: Match List I with List II

Choose the correct answer from the options given below :

  • A-I,B-II,C-III,D-IV
  • A-II,B-III,C-IV,D-I
  • A-III,B-IV,C-I,D-II
  • A-IV,B-III,C-II,D-I

communication
Elements of effective communication are :
Common frame of refrence : compatibility between the reciver and the sender.for example ,common language develops better understanding between the sender and reciver of the message and makes com – munication more effective
Congreunece : message of common intrest between encoder and decorder .
Language relevance : use of understandable language.
Coomptable enviorment : communications with people with similar background .

Ques 44: What number comes next in this sequence ?
6,4,2.5,1.5, ?

  • 0.5
  • -0.5
  • 1
  • -1

matchmaticl aptitude and resoning
The seres follows difference pattern of -2,-1.5,-1,-0.5 and so on.

Read the given passage and answer the questions 46-50 :
Despite the fact that social security programmes in India are not responses to structural adjustment but have a long history of their own. Social expenditure in India is never-theless particularly vulnerable to budget cuts. The social sector is a major spending area of the government, comprising poverty reduction interventions, health, education, mutrition, social assistance and social welfare. Most departments of government are in some way responsible for spending under this broad head.
The sector is highly divisible, thus facilitating incremental and piecemeal reductions in real expenditure. It has a weak political constituency, dominated by technical-expert persons, which the mass of evaluative research that has historically been critical of state interventionism has further weakened.
Such work has been put to uses other than those originally intended-not to reform the sector but as justification to abolish major components of it entirely. However,

Ques 45: Which of the following state has maximum installed wind power as per MNRE’s latest report ?

  • Andhra Pradesh
  • Karnataka
  • Maharashtra
  • Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu

Read the passage carefully and answer the questions
46-50 :
Leadership studies are an emergent discipline, and the concept of leadership will continues to change. Leadership lore is defined as an influence relationship among leaders and followers who want real change and outcomes that reflect their shared purpose. Leadership involves influence. It occurs among people ; those people who intentionally desire significant changes, and the changes reflect purpose shared by the leaders and their followers.
Influence means that the relationship among people is not passive ; however, also part of this definition is that influence is multidirectional. It does not use orders or threats to make somebody do something. The basic cultural values in America make it easiest to think of leadership and something a leader does to a follower. However, leadership has an effect in both directions. In most organizations, superiors influence subordinates, but subordinates also influence superiors. The people involved in the relationship want real and important changes- leadership involves creating change, not maintaining what normally happens. In addition, the changes sought are not dictated by leaders, but reflect purposes that leaders and followers share. Moreover, change is toward an out come that the leaders and follower both want ; a desired future or shared purpose that motivates them toward this more preferable outcome. An important aspect of leadership is influencing others to come together around a common vision. Thus, leadership involves the influence of people to bring about change toward a desirable future.
Since 1991, social sector expenditure has not declined as much as had been anticipated. Despite, or because of its departmental pervasiveness, it is an extremely-perhaps uncuttable-low proportion of GNP. 2.4 per cent as compared with 6.5 per cent in Malaysia, 12.2 per cent in Botswana and 15-25 per cent in OECD countries. Even though social sector expenditure is also flawed by spatial patchiness, conflicting time trends in expenditure levels and composition and patterns specific to each component of welfare, cuts have been widely resisted and certain Indian states have increased their current debt in order to protect social expenditure. There is, fortunately and necessarily, speculative literature predicting, sometimes with illustrations drawn from elsewhere, the likely outcomes of cuts in various types of social welfare is a long-term project of several decades.

Ques 46: the government spending on poverty reduction programmes suffers from

  • Down-sized expenditure in real terms
  • High demand from prospective beneficiaries
  • Several social welfare progammes competing for funds
  • Too many divisible allocations

Ques 47: Social security progammes in India encounter the issue of

  • Direct implementation
  • Increased government intervention
  • Indirect implementation
  • Structural rearrangement

Ques 48: The social sector in India is experiencing

  • A vast amount of speculative literature
  • Change in composition and patterns of social welfare
  • Increased current debt account by certain states to protect their social security measures
  • Upward revision of budget allocations in a few specific area

Ques 49: The expert evaluation reports are used to

  • Justify banishing the social security system
  • Reform the social welfare sector
  • Strengthen the political constituency of social security
  • Support the government spending on social sector

Ques 50: the gist of the passage is that

  • in actuality, diversification founds to areas other than social welfare are justifiable
  • The social security system in India should be strengthened
  • The social welfare system must be abandoned
  • There is no evidence as to the utility of social welfare measures in India

Updated: July 17, 2022 — 9:47 am

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