# (PYQ) NTA UGC NET JRF 2021 PAPER 1 Set 1 with Solution

#### Ques 41: Given below are two statements Statement I : According to Piaget, the ability to sole conservation problems depends on having an understanding of three basic aspects of reasoning : identity, compensation, and reversibility. Statement II : The stage of classification does not depend on a student’s ability to focus on a single characteristic of objects in a set and group the objects according to that characteristic. In light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below :

• Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
• Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
• Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
• Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Teaching Aptitude
According to Piaget, the ability to solve conservation problems depends on having an understanding of there basic aspects of reasoning : identity, compensation and reversibility.
Jean Piaget mentioned the following stages for cognitive development :
(i) Sensory Period (0-2 years)
(ii) Pre-operational period (2-7 years)
(iii) Concrete operational period (7-11 years)
(iv) Formal operation period (11-15 years)
The stage of classification depends on students’ ability to focus on a single characteristic of objects in a set and group of objects according to that characteristic. Thus, statement II is incorrect.

#### Ques 42: Some of the type of hypothesis are as follows : A. Descriptive B. Null C. Confounding D. Intervening E. Explanatory (Causal) Choose the correct answer from the options given below :

• A,B and D only
• A,B and E only
• A,B and C only
• B, C and D only

Research Aptitude
Descriptive Hypothesis : this contains only one variable so it is called a univariate hypothesis. This typically states the existence, size, form or distribution of some variable. It describes the situation or collects the data, the same as it has happened without adding our own assumptions as a researcher
Null Hypothesis : the null hypothesis (often denoted H0) is that two possibilities are the same. The null hypothesis is that the observed difference is due to chance alone. Using statistical tests, it is possible to calculate the likelihood that the null hypothesis is true.
Explanatory Hypothesis : This hypothesis guides the cause and effect relationship between two variables. For example, when salaries increase, then spending on food items also increase.
Intervening and confounding variables add to the impact of independent variables on dependent variables.

#### Ques 43: ———— messages have more or less same meaning for the audience.

• Abstract
• Complex
• Connotative
• Denotative

Logical Reasoning
The denotative meaning of a word is simply the commonly accepted meaning or the definition that you would find if you were to look up that word in a dictionary.
Typically, the connotative meaning of a word has more of an emotional association and is more likely to trigger an emotional response than the denotative meaning.

#### Ques 44: Given below are two statements Statement I : Truth and Falsehood are predicates of Arguments Statement II : Validity and Invalidity are predicates of Statements In light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below :

• Both Statements I and Statement II are correct
• Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
• Statements I is correct but Statements II is incorrect
• Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Logical Reasoning
Truth and falsehood are predicates of a statement and validity and invalidity are predicates of an argument.

#### Ques 45: Which of the following state has maximum installed wind power as per MNRE’s latest report ?

• Karnataka
• Maharashtra

46-50 :
Leadership studies are an emergent discipline, and the concept of leadership will continues to change. Leadership lore is defined as an influence relationship among leaders and followers who want real change and outcomes that reflect their shared purpose. Leadership involves influence. It occurs among people ; those people who intentionally desire significant changes, and the changes reflect purpose shared by the leaders and their followers.
Influence means that the relationship among people is not passive ; however, also part of this definition is that influence is multidirectional. It does not use orders or threats to make somebody do something. The basic cultural values in America make it easiest to think of leadership and something a leader does to a follower. However, leadership has an effect in both directions. In most organizations, superiors influence subordinates, but subordinates also influence superiors. The people involved in the relationship want real and important changes- leadership involves creating change, not maintaining what normally happens. In addition, the changes sought are not dictated by leaders, but reflect purposes that leaders and followers share. Moreover, change is toward an out come that the leaders and follower both want ; a desired future or shared purpose that motivates them toward this more preferable outcome. An important aspect of leadership is influencing others to come together around a common vision. Thus, leadership involves the influence of people to bring about change toward a desirable future.

#### Ques 46: What is the main theme of this passage ?

• Pros and cons of leadership

#### Ques 47: The concept of leadership discussed in this passage is

• exceptional
• Horizontal
• Individualistic
• Vertical-top down

Horizontal

#### Ques 48: “Leadership studies are an emerging discipline”, means :

• Leadership studies are a valid field of research
• Leadership studies are an established field
• Leadership studies is an elaborate field
• Leadership studies is an evolving domain of scholarship

Leadership studies is an evolving domain of scholarship

#### Ques 49: What should be the outcome of leadership action ?

• Movement towards common vision of the leader and the followers
• Movement towards the vision of the leader
• Movement towards the vision of the majority
• Strengthening of the authority of leaders

Movement towards common vision of the leader and the followers

#### Ques 50: What variables are used for defining leadership ?

• Power to affect relationship and desire for change in the true sense of the team
• Power to change and control
• Power to effect and desire for mandated change
• Power to get things done quickly by influence

Power to get things done quickly by influence