Ques 11: United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) was the result of deliberations held during
- Earth Summit at Rio do Janeiro in 1992
- Human Environmental Conference at Stockholm in 1972
- Kyoto Protocol 1997
- Montreal Protocol 1987
People, Development and Environment
Here, we have taken a broad view to deal with future questions. Since 1972, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has been the lobal authority tainable development’ for future generations and an authoritative advocate for the global environment. UNEP is headquartered in representatives from civil society, businesses, etc. through the UN Environment Assembly, the world’s highest-level decision-making body on the environment.
UNEP’s medium-Term Strategy (MTS) articulates its role in delivering the promises of the ‘2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) as well as its outcome document, “The Future We Want”
Through its campaigns, particularly ‘World Environment Day’ (June 5), UNEP raises awareness and advocates for effective environmental action. The Day was established in 1972 by the UN at ‘Stockolm Conference on the Human Environment’ (5-16 June, 1972). This day is connected with the launch of ‘UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration 2021-2030’. A step further, UNEP can be further linked with UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Conference of Parties (COPs) Kyoto Protocol, Paris Agreement and COP26 Glasgow meeting asking for Zero Emissions. World seems to have set year 2050 as the target year for Zero Emissions and India has set Year 2070 for its own emissions during Glasgow COP26 Meeting.
Ques 12: Which one of the following is an important characteristic of the researchers involved in qualitative study ?
Reflexivity : Research should be classified as a “Mission’, the researchers get in this mission and their own personalities become part of it. Conducting qualitative research, such as fieldwork, changes a researcher in many ways. Through reflexivity, researchers acknowledge the changes brought about in themselves as a result of the research process and how these changes have affected the research process. Thus, this reflexivity is an iterative and empowering process. Reflexivity should be recognized as a significant part of the research findings. Thus, it is an analytic attention to the researcher’s role in qualitative research”, it is both a concept and a process. As a concept, it refers to a certain level of consciousness.
There are the few basic principles in the linked qualitative research :
(i) Feminist principle
(ii) Rights-based research : the respect of human rights of participants during the research process.
(iii) Participatory research principles : it recognizes that people have expert knowledge and deep insight into their own lives and communities.
Ques 13: Given below are two statements, one is labelled as Assertion A and the other is labelled as Reason R Assertion A : in Classroom communication, teachers should acknowledge and take into account students views.
Reason R : in a classroom the probability of message reception can be enhanced by establishing a viewpoint.
In light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below
- A is false but R is true
- A is true but R is false
- Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
- Both A and R are true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
This questions is linked with feedback in the classroom to make it effective communication. A teacher should be proficient in all four modes of communication-listening, speaking, reading, and writing-and should know how to utilize this proficiency effectively in an educational institute environment. Being able to do this has been proven to impact the success students achieve in their academic lives, as well as the teacher’s own career success.
Ques 14: If’ All men are mortal’ is given as True, then which of the following options can be validly inferred from it ?
A. Not men is mortal is False
B. Some men are mortal’ is True
C. Some men are not mortal’ is True
D. Some men are not mortal is False.
E. Some men are mortal is False
Choose the correct answer from the options given below :
- A,B and D only
- A,B and C only
- A,B,C and D only
- B,C,D and E only
If ‘all men are mortal’ is true, then ……
To deal with such questions, we need to take help from ‘square of opposition’.
Contradictories : Contradictory propositions cannot be simultaneously true and false. If one is true, the other is necessarily false. If one is true, the other is necessarily false and vice versa. That is, if ‘A’ is true, ‘O’ is false; ‘E’ is false.
Contrary : when two universal proposition differ only in quality. B definition, both opposite propositions can be both false and true at the same time. If one of them is true, the other must necessarily be false. If one is false, the other may be true or false. That is, if ‘E’ is true, ‘O’ is true.
Sub-alternation : when two prepositions differ only in quantity (one is universal and the other is special), such an opposition is said to be sub-alternation. These propositions may be simultaneously true or simultaneously false. That is, if ‘O’ is true, then ‘E’ is false; ‘I’ is true
Thus, if ’all men are mortal’ is true, then we can validly infer that No men are mortal is false’ (Contrary). Some men are mortal is true (Sub-alteration) and ‘Some men are not mortal’ (Contradictory proposition).
Ques 15: INFLIBNET centre, which is an autonomous Inter University Centre of the University Grants Commission, maintains
- Swayam Prabha
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) INFLIBNET-it is abbreviation of information Inter-University Centre (IUC) of UGC. It is located in Gandhinagar, Gujarat. It is a major National Programme initiated by the UGC in March 1991 as a project under the IUCAA, it became an independent inter-University Centre in June 1996. INFLIBNET is involved in modernizing university libraries in India using the state-of-art technologies for the optimum utilization of information. INFLIBNET is set out to be a major player in promoting scholarly communication among academicians and researcher in Indai.
The following institutions and projects are linked with it.
1. Shodhganga- A reservoir of Indian Theses
2. INDCAT – online Union Catalogue of Indian Universities
3. SOUL – State-of-art Integrated Library Management System
4. e-ShodhSindhu – Consortium for Higher Education e-Resources
5. ShodhShuddhi – Provides Plagiarism Detection Software to Institutions
6. IRINS – Research Information Management System for Institutions
7. Vidhya-Mitra – Integrated e-Content Portal
8. Vidwan – Expert Database & National Researcher Network
9. e-PG Pathshala – an initiative of the Ministry of Education under its National Mission on Education through ICT (NME-ICT) being executed by UGC.
10. e-Pathya : It is one the verticals of e-PG Pathshala which is software driven course/content package that facilitates students pursuing higher education (PG level) in distance learning as well as campus learning mode. It also facilitates offline access.
11. e-Adhyayan (e-Books) : e-Adhyayan is a plat-form to provide 700+e-Books for the Post-Graduate Courses. All the e-Books are derived from e-PG Pathshala courses. It also facilitates play-list of video content.
12. UGC-MOOCs. It is one of vertical to produce course on Post Graduate subjects in SWAYAM (Online Courses, a Ministry of Education initiative). UGC is one of the national coordinator of SWAYAM, and INFLIBNET is technical partner for UGC-MOOCs.
Ques 16: Given below are two statements regarding the Router Statement I : It enables data packets to be routed between different networks. Statement II: it works in the Data Link Layer.
In light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below :
- Both Statement I and Statement II are false
- Both Statement I and Statement II are true
- Statement I is false but Statement II is true
- Statement I is true but Statement II is false
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Routers are networking devices. They are responsible for receiving, analysing, and forwarding data packets among the connected computer networks. on the arrival of a data packet, the router inspects the destination address, consults its routing tables to decide the optimal route and then transfers the packet along this route.
A router can be used both in LANs (Local Area Network) and WANs (Wide Area Networks). Routers are more expensive than other networking devices like hubs, bridges and switches. Routers are manufactured by some popular companies such as Cisco, D-Link, HP, Nortel etc.
A router is a layer 3 or network layer device in OSI Model while data link layer works in the layer 2 of OSI Model. Data link layer is responsible for maintaining the data link between two hosts or nodes.
Ques 17: Survey research is based on which of the following ?
Survey research a research method involving the use of standardized questionnaires or interviews to collect data about people and their preferences, thoughts, and behaviors in a systematic manner. As surveys are used to collect data from a predefined subject(s), they have been counted under ‘positivism’ approach.
The survey as a formal research method was pioneered in the 1930-40s by sociologist Paul Lazarsfeld to examine the effects of the radio on political opinion formation of the United States. This method has since become a very popular method for quantitative research in the social sciences.
The survey method can be used for descriptive, exploratory, or explanatory research.
Survey research has several inherent strengths compared to other research methods due to following reasons.
(i) Survey is an excellent vehicle to measure a wide variety of data-people’s preferences (political orientation), traits (self-esteem), attitudes (toward immigrants), beliefs (about a new law), behaviors (smoking), or factual information (income).
(ii) it is ideally suited for remotely collecting data about a population. For example, a large nation such as India or its state UP, MP, Maharashtra that can be covered using mail-in, electronic mail, or telephone surveys. Researches can use well planned sampling to ensure that the population is adequately represented in a small sample.
(iii) Interviews may be the only way of reaching certain population groups such as the homeless or illegal immigrants for which there is no sampling frame available.
(iv) Survey research is economical in terms of researcher time, effort and cost than most other methods such as experimental research and case research.
At the same time, survey research also has some unique disadvantages. It is subject to a large number of biases such as non-response bias, sampling bias, social desirability bias, and recall bias, etc.
Depending on data collection techniques, survey research can be divided into two broad categories :
(i) Questionnaire surveys-mail-in, group-administered, or online surveys), and
(ii) Interview surveys – personal, telephone, or focus group interviews (These have been discussed in detail in second unit of Pearson title for NTA-NET exam).
Constructing a survey questionnaire (or interviewing) is an art. For the benefit of research students, the following responses to structured questions have been suggested.
(i) Dichotomous response – responses such as true/false, yes/no, or agree/disagree. Is MSP required for crops-Yes/No
(ii) Nominal response – more than two unordered options. What is your industry of employment : manufacturing / supply chain / consumer services / retail / education.
(iii) Ordinal response – more than two ordered options. What is your highest level of education : high school / college degree / graduate studies / PG / PhD.
(IV) Interval-level response- when respondents are presented with a 5-point or 7-point Linkert scale, semantic differential scale, or Guttman scale etc.
(v) Continuous response – when respondents enter a continuous (ratio-scaled) value with a meaningful zero point, such as their age or tenure in a firm. These responses generally tend to be of the fill-in-the blanks type.
The survey questions should be stated in a very simple language, preferably in active voice, and without complicated words or jargon so that they are clearly understandable by a typical respondent. Questions must not be biased and too much detailed.
Double-barreled questions are those that can have multiple answers. For example, are you satisfied with the hardware and software provided for your work ?
Question should not be presumptuous such as on taxes-too high or too low. Avoid questions with built-in presumptions.
‘Question sequencing’ should be proper, such as questions should flow logically from one to the next.
Role of interviewer should be motivational for respondents.
They should make a good questionnaire.
Just pausing and waiting (without going into the next question) may suggest to respondents that the interviewer is waiting for more detailed response. It is called as ‘Silent probe’.
The interviewer can try the psychotherapist’s trick of repeating what the respondent said is called as ‘Reflection’.
Five common biases in survey research are nonresponse bias, sampling bias (excluding some people who don’t have some resources such as mobile phone), social desirability bias (avoid negative opinions), recall bias (subjects’ motivation, memory, and ability to respond). Common method bias refers to the amount of spurious covariance shared between independent and dependent variables that are measured at the same point in time such as in a cross sectional survey, using the same instrument, such as a questionnaire.
Ques 18: The number of Sustainable Development Goals is
People, Development and Environment
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
SDGs, also known as the Global Goals, were adopted by the United Nations in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure that by 2030 all people enjoy peace and prosperity.
The 17 SDGs are integrated-they recognize that action in one area will affect outcomes in others, and that development must balance social, economic and environmental sustainability.
GOAL 1 : NO POVERTY
GOAL 2: ZERO HUNGER
GOAL 3 : GOOD HEALTH AND WELL-BEING
GOAL 4 : QUALITY EDUCATION
GOAL 5 : GENDER EQUALITY
GOAL 6 : CLEAN WATER AND SANITATION
GOAL 7 : AFFORDABLE AND CLEAN ENERGY
GOAL 8 : DECENT WORKAND ECONOMIC GROWTH
GOAL 9 : INDUSTRY, INNOVATION AND INFRASTRUCTURE
GOAL 10 : REDUCED INEQUALITIES
GOAL 11 : SUSTAINABLE CITIES AND COMMUNITIES
GOAL 12 : RESPONSIBLE CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION
GOAL 13 : CLIMATE ACTION
GOAL 14 : LIFE BELOW WATER
GOAL 15 : LIFE ON LAND
GOAL 16: PEACE, JUSTICE AND STRONG INSTTTUTIONS
GOAL 17 : PARTNERSHIPS FOR THE GOALS
Ques 19: Global citizenship Education promotes
- Common international laws for global citizenship
- International public relations
- Issues pertaining to citizenship across countries involving VISA
- more peaceful, tolerant, inclusive, secure and sustainable societies
Higher Education System
Global Citizenship Education : Topics and learning objectives, should be counted as the first pedagogical guidance from UNESCO on global citizenship education. With such education, young people are able to solve problems, make decisions, think critically, communicate ideas effectively and work well with others. This not only helps them personally as well. Thus, a global education in the classroom is paramount.
Ques 20: Marshall Mmeluhan’s name is associated with the assertion :
- A message is a message
- The medium is the message
- The message determines the medium accurately
- the message is the medium
‘The medium is the message’ is an expression coined by Canadian educator Marshall McLuhan that is often interpreted to mean that the “media” used to communicate information have a significant impact on the messages they deliver. The form of a message (print, visual, musical, etc.) determines the ways in which that message will be perceived. Modern electronic communications (including radio, television, films, and computers) would have far-reaching sociological, aesthetic, and philosophical consequences, to the point of actually altering the ways in which we experience the world.