Biology 12 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Chapter 9 – Exercise

Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Chapter 9 – Exercise

Q 1. Explain in brief the role of animal husbandry in human welfare.
Ans 1. Animal husbandry includes feeding, breeding and raising animals livestock whose primary purpose is to provide milk and meat. Milk is considered as the ‘most nearly perfect’ food for human consumption and regarded as an important article of diet. We get animal protein from beef, cattle, sheep and meat goats. Similarly, eggs and high quality meat obtained from poultry birds gives us a balanced diet and serves as a cheap source of animal protein. Thus, animal husbandry plays a very important role in human welfare by providing us milk, eggs, meat, wool, silk, honey, was and many other things.
Q 2. If your family owned a dairy farm, what measures would you undertake to improve the quality and quantity of milk production.

Ans 2. We will take the following measures:

  1. First of all, we will keep good breeds of dairy farm animals.
  2. We will provide sufficient water and feed so that the animals are properly nourished.
  3. Animals should be kept in a clean place under a shadow and in open area free from dirt and pollution.
  4. We shall employ a veterinary doctor to visit our farm regularly.
  5. The milking men and the milking pots should be clean and washed properly.
  6. The health of the dairy cattle should be given due care and the udder and teats should be cleaned properly before milking.
Q 3. What is meant by the term ‘breed’? what are the objectives of animal breeding?
Ans 3. The group of animals having same ancestry characters, general appearance, size, etc. are called ‘breed’. They have been developed as a result of animal breeding which aims at increasing the yield of animals and improving the desirable qualities of the produce.
Q 4. Name the methods employed in animal breeding. According to you which one of the methods is the best? Why?

Ans 4. Methods employed in animal breeding are:

  1. natural methods – these further include
  2. Inbreeding and
  3. Artificial methods – such as super ovulation and embryo transplantation.

Multiple ovulation embryo transfers technology (MOET).

Artificial methods of animal breeding is best as it ensures good quality progency. It is economical because the semen obtained from a single byll can inseminate a few thousand cows at the off places.

Q 5. What is apiculture? How is it important in our lives?

Ans 5. Apiculture or Bee keeping is an important enterprise of agriculture concerned with maintenance of hives of honeybees for the commercial production of honey and wax.

Be keeping is or Apiculture is important in our life because it has a great importance for its medicinal value. It is useful in the treatment of various disorders related to digestion, dysentery, vomiting and stomach and liver ailments. The bee wax obtained from the hives of honeybees is used in the many industries for the preparation of cosmetics and polishes.

The other useful products of apiculture are production of propolis and poisons which are used in some Ayurvedic and homeopathic preparations.

Q 6. Discuss the role of fishery in enhancement of food production.

Ans 6. Fishery is a kind of industry which is concerned with the catching, processing, or selling of fish, shellfish or other aquatic animals such as crabs, lobster, edible oyster etc. a large number of our population is dependent on this industry to get their livelihood. Millions of fisherman works to make it possible for people to get cheap source of animal protein that is easily digestible.

During the past few decades, fish production has been increased many folds to meet out the demand of growing population. In this regard. Modern technologies have developed special devices to assist the easy capturing and cultivation of fishes in marine and fresh water ecosystem.

Q 7. Briefly describe various steps involved in plant breeding.

Ans 7. There are various steps like:

  1. Collection of germplasm: the genetic material present inside the reproductive cells (or germ cells) is called germplasm. There are four basic methods of genetic conservation.
  2. In situ conservation (i.e., To maintain them where they are in wild places like forests and nature preserves)
  3. Situ conservation (i.e., To hold them in botanical gardens)
  4. Large scale cultivation for trade (i.e., To feed them into the agricultural and horticultural trade.)
  5. Storage of seeds and other propagules (i.e., To preserve them in the form of seeds or other propagules)
  6. Selection of parents : wild or cultivated varieties having the desired characters are selected and used in plant breeding programme as parents. The selected plants must be obtained by pure line selection if required in the process of hybridization.
  • Selection and testing of superior recombination: the hybrids having characters are selected from the progeny and then self-pollinated for several generation to make them homozygous.Q 8. Explain what is meant by biofortification?
Ans 8. Plant, breeding, programme designed to increase the vitamins, minerals, higher protein and healthier fat content in crop yields in called biofortification. During the recent past, several varieties of crop plants (such as rice, carrots, spinach, pumpkin, bathua, etc.) Have been developed which possess several times more nutritive value and vitamins as compared to existing varieties.)
Q 9. Which part of the plant is best suited for making virus-free plants and why?
Ans 9. The terminal or intercalary buds having apical meristem are the best suited parts of plant for making virus-free plants. Because, they are not infected by viruses.
Q 10. What is the major advantage of producing plants by micropropagation?
Ans 10. Micropropagation is a tissue-culture method which is used produce thousands of plants in very short durations.
Q 11. Find out what the various components of the medium used for propagation of an explant in vitro are?

Ans 11. The major components of the medium are water, agar-agar, source of carbon (Such as sources), inorganic salts, vitamins, amino acids and growth hromones (like auxins, cytokinins, etc.).

Q 12. Name any five hybrid varieties of crop plants which have been developed in India.
Ans 12. Rice varieties                         –           Jaya and Ratna
Wheat varieties          –           Himgiri
Brassica varieties       –           Pusa swarnim (Karan Rai)
Cauliflower                 –           Pusa Shubra and Pusa Snowball K-1

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